Aug
18

“We Come as Good Neighbors”: Presidential Visit to Mexico, June 29–July 1, 1962

The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library has teamed up with the National Archives Communications Office to extend its social media reach to Spanish-speaking audiences. As chance would have it, a Kennedy Library intern was in the midst of cataloging President and Mrs. Kennedy’s 1962 trip to Mexico when NARA announced a new Diversity and Inclusion intern hired to promote a pilot project aimed at expanding outreach.

After cataloging over 150 photos from the trip to Mexico, Kennedy Library White House Photographs cataloging intern, Lillianne “Lilli” Germain, created the following blog post featuring archival materials related to the visit; the Kennedy Library enlisted the help of NARA’s Diversity and Inclusion intern, Idaliz “Ida” Marie Ortiz Morales, to translate Lilli’s blog into Spanish. We are excited to share the results of Lilli and Ida’s hard work!

 

by Lillianne Germain, Graduate Student Intern (Simmons College GSLIS)

 

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As a White House Photographs cataloging intern at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library, I am lucky to work with an amazing collection of photos on a daily basis. My main internship responsibilities are to research the people, places, and events depicted and to write descriptions of the photos. One of the great advantages of working with such a historic collection is the vast amount of material we have at our disposal for this research. The many resources available at the Library truly bring the photos to life. This is especially the case with my project this summer–I get to spend my days in Mexico with President John F. Kennedy and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy on their state visit in 1962.

The amount of materials related to this one visit (which lasted just 48 hours!) spans multiple collections of textual materials, audio recordings, and moving images. Though my job is to catalog the photographs from this trip, at the half-way point of this project I am struck with the amount of time I have spent with other materials in our collections, pooling information from the President’s Office Files, National Security Files, and Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis Personal Papers.

President and Mrs. Kennedy traveled to Mexico City in the summer of 1962, but the foundation for the trip started much earlier. As President Kennedy remarked at a ceremony upon his arrival in Mexico, the visit was a tradition that had been practiced by U.S. presidents since Franklin D. Roosevelt. “We come as good neighbors and follow in the footsteps of one of my most distinguished predecessors, Franklin Roosevelt, who prophesied that the day would ultimately come when Presidents of Mexico and the United States would freely meet and freely communicate upon their common responsibilities and common opportunities.”

 

JFKWHP-KN-22522. President John F. Kennedy delivers remarks upon his arrival in Mexico City. President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos, stands on platform at right; U.S. State Department interpreter, Donald Barnes, stands below platform at left. Members of an honor guard stand in the background. Benito Juárez International Airport, Mexico City, Mexico, 29 June 1962.

JFKWHP-KN-22522. President John F. Kennedy delivers remarks upon his arrival in Mexico City. President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos, stands on platform at right; U.S. State Department interpreter, Donald Barnes, stands below platform at left. Members of an honor guard stand in the background. Benito Juárez International Airport, Mexico City, Mexico, 29 June 1962.

photo-icon_saturated View this photo and more images from the folder here

audio-icon_saturated Listen to audio of the address here.

folder-icon_saturated View drafts and transcript of the speech here.

film-icon_saturated View motion picture footage from the arrival ceremony and the entire trip here.

 

And so President Kennedy traveled to Mexico after an invitation was extended from the President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos, in the fall of 1961.

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folder-icon_saturated For an English translation, view the folder here.

 

The photographs from the visit show that the President and First Lady were received with enthusiasm by the Mexican people and by President López Mateos (as we can see from their embrace in this photograph!).

JFKWHP-ST-300-41-62. President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos, welcomes President John F. Kennedy to Los Pinos, the official residence of the President of Mexico. Standing in center (L-R): First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy; President López Mateos; President Kennedy; First Lady of Mexico, Eva Sámano de López Mateos; and Eva López Mateos. Also pictured: Chief of Protocol of Mexico, Federico A. Mariscal; Chief of the Presidential General Staff of Mexico, Major General José Gómez Huerta; U.S. Chief of Protocol, Angier Biddle Duke; U.S. State Department interpreter, Donald Barnes; General Cristóbal Guzmán Cárdenas; White House Secret Service agents, Gerald A. "Jerry" Behn, and Paul S. Rundle. Mexico City, Mexico, 29 June 1962.

JFKWHP-ST-300-41-62. President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos, welcomes President John F. Kennedy to Los Pinos, the official residence of the President of Mexico. Standing in center (L-R): First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy; President López Mateos; President Kennedy; First Lady of Mexico, Eva Sámano de López Mateos; and Eva López Mateos. Also pictured: Chief of Protocol of Mexico, Federico A. Mariscal; Chief of the Presidential General Staff of Mexico, Major General José Gómez Huerta; U.S. Chief of Protocol, Angier Biddle Duke; U.S. State Department interpreter, Donald Barnes; General Cristóbal Guzmán Cárdenas; White House Secret Service agents, Gerald A. “Jerry” Behn, and Paul S. Rundle. Mexico City, Mexico, 29 June 1962.

photo-icon_saturated View this photo and more images from the folder here.

 

The warm welcome is especially evident in the images of the motorcade traveling from the airport to the residence of the President of Mexico (Los Pinos). Approximately a million and a half people lined the streets to watch the motorcade, and a blizzard of confetti greeted them as they made their way through the city.

JFKWHP-ST-C1-27-62. President John F. Kennedy stands in a convertible during the motorcade to Los Pinos, the official residence of the President of Mexico, following his and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy's arrival in Mexico. President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos (right), stands in the car with President Kennedy. The Catedral de México (Metropolitan Cathedral) and the Galería Palacio Nacional (National Palace) are visible in the background. Confetti falls on the motorcade; spectators line the street. Mexico City, Mexico, 29 June 1962.

JFKWHP-ST-C1-27-62. President John F. Kennedy stands in a convertible during the motorcade to Los Pinos, the official residence of the President of Mexico, following his and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy’s arrival in Mexico. President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos (right), stands in the car with President Kennedy. The Catedral de México (Metropolitan Cathedral) and the Galería Palacio Nacional (National Palace) are visible in the background. Confetti falls on the motorcade; spectators line the street. Mexico City, Mexico, 29 June 1962.

photo-icon_saturated View this photo and more images from the folder here.

 

As with many of the Kennedys’ trips, Mrs. Kennedy stood out as a star. She toured various attractions and facilities important to Mexico City in the 1960s, endearing herself to the people of Mexico.

JFKWHP-KN-C22562. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy stands in front of the Piedra del Sol (Aztec calendar, Sun Stone) during a visit to the Museo Nacional de Antropología (National Museum of Anthropology) of the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History) in Mexico City, Mexico. Left to right: Eva López Mateos; First Lady of Mexico, Eva Sámano de López Mateos; Subdirector of the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Dr. Ignacio Bernal; Mrs. Kennedy; Director of the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Dr. Eusebio Dávalos Hurtado. 29 June 1962.

JFKWHP-KN-C22562. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy stands in front of the Piedra del Sol (Aztec calendar, Sun Stone) during a visit to the Museo Nacional de Antropología (National Museum of Anthropology) of the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History) in Mexico City, Mexico. Left to right: Eva López Mateos; First Lady of Mexico, Eva Sámano de López Mateos; Subdirector of the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Dr. Ignacio Bernal; Mrs. Kennedy; Director of the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Dr. Eusebio Dávalos Hurtado. 29 June 1962.

photo-icon_saturated View this photo and more images from the folder here.

 

 

JFKWHP-ST-C1-21-62. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy visits with children at the Instituto Nacional de Protección a la Infancia (National Institute for the Protection of Children) in Mexico City, Mexico, 30 June 1962.

JFKWHP-ST-C1-21-62. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy visits with children at the Instituto Nacional de Protección a la Infancia (National Institute for the Protection of Children) in Mexico City, Mexico, 30 June 1962.

photo-icon_saturated View this photo and more images from the folder here.

 

Mrs. Kennedy even delivered a speech in Spanish at a luncheon that she and President Kennedy gave in honor of President López Mateos and First Lady of Mexico, Eva Sámano de López Mateos.

JFKWHP-KN-C22666-G. President John F. Kennedy stands with First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy as she delivers remarks in Spanish at a luncheon held in honor of President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos, and First Lady of Mexico, Eva Sámano de López Mateos. At table (L-R): President of the Permanent Commission of the Mexican Congress, Rómulo Sánchez Mireles; President López Mateos; Mrs. Kennedy; President Kennedy; Mrs. López Mateos (mostly hidden behind flowers); President of the Supreme Court of Mexico, Alfonso Guzmán Neyra. Also pictured is U.S. State Department interpreter, Donald Barnes (in back, behind Mrs. Kennedy). Hotel Maria Isabel, Mexico City, Mexico, 30 June 1962.

JFKWHP-KN-C22666-G. President John F. Kennedy stands with First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy as she delivers remarks in Spanish at a luncheon held in honor of President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos, and First Lady of Mexico, Eva Sámano de López Mateos. At table (L-R): President of the Permanent Commission of the Mexican Congress, Rómulo Sánchez Mireles; President López Mateos; Mrs. Kennedy; President Kennedy; Mrs. López Mateos (mostly hidden behind flowers); President of the Supreme Court of Mexico, Alfonso Guzmán Neyra. Also pictured is U.S. State Department interpreter, Donald Barnes (in back, behind Mrs. Kennedy). Hotel Maria Isabel, Mexico City, Mexico, 30 June 1962.

photo-icon_saturated View image here.

 

 

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JBKOPP-SF16-003-p0084—85. English and Spanish translations of First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy’s remarks.

folder-icon_saturated View the entire folder here.

 

 

 

 

 

As these photographs and documents suggest, the trip to Mexico was a great success in strengthening the relationship of Mexico and the United States as “good neighbors.” Throughout the trip, both presidents expressed a desire for a strong friendship between the two nations. In a message sent to President López Mateos upon his departure from Mexico, President Kennedy concluded, “I came to meet a president and statesman, I have left him as a friend. ¡Viva México!”

 

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JFKPOF-122-006-p0175. Draft of message President Kennedy sent to President López Mateos upon leaving Mexico.

folder-icon_saturated View the entire folder here.

 

President López Mateos sent this message to President Kennedy in response:

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folder-icon_saturated For an English translation, view the entire folder here.

 

To date, over half of the photographs from this trip have been cataloged and published in our digital archives. Visit our finding aid to explore more photographs from this trip, and stay tuned as the project comes closer to completion!

 

 

 

Permanent link to this article: http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2014/08/we-come-as-good-neighbors-presidential-visit-to-mexico-june-29-july-1-1962/

Aug
18

“Venimos como Buenos Vecinos”: La Visita Presidencial a Mexico, Junio 29–Julio 1 de 1962

La Biblioteca Presidencial John F. Kennedy se ha unido a la Oficina de Comunicaciones de los Archivos Nacionales para extender su alcance de medios de comunicación social para el público de habla hispana. Tal parece que de casualidad, nuestra interna de la Biblioteca Kennedy, estaba en medio de la catalogación del viaje de 1962 del presidente y la señora Kennedy a México, cuando los Archivos Nacionales anunciaron a su nueva interna de Diversidad e Inclusion contratada para promover un proyecto piloto destinado a ampliar el alcance de los medios de comunicación social.

Tras haber catalogado más de 150 fotos del viaje a México, la interna de catalogación de las fotografías de la Casa Blanca de la Biblioteca Kennedy, Lillianne “Lilli” Germain, crea la siguiente “blog post” que ofrece materiales de los archivos relacionados con la visita. La Biblioteca Kennedy contó con la ayuda de la interna de Diversidad e Inclusión de los Archivos Nacionales, Idaliz “Ida” Marie Ortiz Morales, para traducir el blog de Lilli en español. Estamos muy contentos de compartir los resultados del trabajo duro de Lilli y de Ida!

 

Por Lillianne Germain, Interna en la Biblioteca Presidencial John F. Kennedy
Traducción por Idaliz Marie Ortiz Morales, Interna en la Oficina de Estrategias de Planificacion y Comunicaciones en los Archivos Nacionales

 

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Como interna de la catalogacón de las fotografías de la Casa Blanca en la Biblioteca Presidencial John F. Kennedy, he tenido la suerte de trabajar con una impresionante colección de fotos diariamente. Mis mayores responsabilidades en el internado son investigar a las personas, lugares y eventos mencionados anteriormente y escribir descripciones de las fotos. Una de las grandes ventajas de trabajar con una colección tan histórica es la gran cantidad de material que tenemos a nuestra disposición para esta investigación. Los numerosos recursos disponibles en la biblioteca le traen, verdaderamente, vida a las fotos. Este es el caso con mi proyecto de este verano – puedo pasar mis días en México con el presidente John F. Kennedy y la primera dama Jacqueline Kennedy en su visita de Estado en 1962.

La cantidad de material relacionado con esta visita (que duró solo 48 horas!) abarca varias colecciones de materiales de texto, grabaciones de audio e imágenes en movimiento. Aunque mi trabajo consiste en catalogar las fotografías de este viaje, en el punto medio de este proyecto, me llama la atención la cantidad de tiempo que he pasado con otros materiales en nuestras colecciones, recopilando información de la Oficina de Archivos del Presidente, Archivos de Seguridad Nacional, and Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis Documentos Personales.

El presidente y la señora Kennedy viajaron a la Ciudad de México en el verano de 1962, pero el fundamento para el viaje comenzó mucho antes. Como el presidente Kennedy destacó en una ceremonia a su llegada a México, la visita fue una tradición que había sido practicado por los presidentes de Estados Unidos desde Franklin D. Roosevelt. “Venimos como buenos vecinos y seguimos los pasos de uno de mis predecesores más ilustres, Franklin Roosevelt, quien profetizó que llegaría el día, finalmente, cuando los presidentes de México y Estados Unidos se podrían reunir libremente y positivamente comunicarse sobre sus responsabilidades comunes y frecuentes oportunidades“.

 

JFKWHP-KN-22522. President John F. Kennedy delivers remarks upon his arrival in Mexico City. President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos, stands on platform at right; U.S. State Department interpreter, Donald Barnes, stands below platform at left. Members of an honor guard stand in the background. Benito Juárez International Airport, Mexico City, Mexico, 29 June 1962.

JFKWHP-KN-22522. El presidente John F. Kennedy pronuncia un discurso al llegar a la Ciudad de México. El presidente de México, Adolfo López Mateos, se encuentra en la plataforma a la derecha; El intérprete del Departamento de Estado de Estados Unidos, Donald Barnes, se encuentra por debajo de la plataforma a la izquierda. Los miembros de la guardia de honor de pie en el fondo. Aeropuerto Internacional Benito Juárez, Ciudad de México, México, 29 de junio de 1962.

photo-icon_saturated Ver esta foto y más imágenes de la carpeta aquí.

audio-icon_saturated Escuche el audio de la dirección aquí.

folder-icon_saturated Ver borradores y transcripción del discurso aquí.

film-icon_saturated Ver película de la ceremonia de llegada y todo el viaje aquí.

 

Y así, el presidente Kennedy viajó a México después que se le extendiera una invitación por parte del  Presidente de México, Adolfo López Mateos, en el otoño de 1961.

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folder-icon_saturated Para una traducción en ingles, vaya a la carpeta aquí.

 

Las fotografías de la visita muestran que el pueblo de México y el presidente López Mateos recibieron con entusiasmo al Presidente y a la Primera Dama. (como podemos ver por su abrazo en esta fotografía!).

JFKWHP-ST-300-41-62. President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos, welcomes President John F. Kennedy to Los Pinos, the official residence of the President of Mexico. Standing in center (L-R): First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy; President López Mateos; President Kennedy; First Lady of Mexico, Eva Sámano de López Mateos; and Eva López Mateos. Also pictured: Chief of Protocol of Mexico, Federico A. Mariscal; Chief of the Presidential General Staff of Mexico, Major General José Gómez Huerta; U.S. Chief of Protocol, Angier Biddle Duke; U.S. State Department interpreter, Donald Barnes; General Cristóbal Guzmán Cárdenas; White House Secret Service agents, Gerald A. "Jerry" Behn, and Paul S. Rundle. Mexico City, Mexico, 29 June 1962.

JFKWHP-ST-300-41-62. El presidente de México, Adolfo López Mateos, le da la bienvenida al presidente John F. Kennedy a Los Pinos, la residencia oficial del Presidente de México. De pie en el centro (L-R): la primera dama Jacqueline Kennedy; El presidente López Mateos; El presidente Kennedy; la Primera Dama de México, Eva Sámano de López Mateos; y Eva López Mateos. También en la foto: el Jefe de Protocolo de México, Federico A. Mariscal; el Jefe del Personal Presidencial General de México, General de División José Gómez Huerta; Jefe de Protocolo de los EE.UU., Angier Biddle Duke; el intérprete del Departamento de Estado de los EE.UU., Donald Barnes; el General Cristóbal Guzmán Cárdenas; y los agentes del Servicio Secreto de la Casa Blanca, Gerald A. “Jerry” Behn, y Paul S. Rundle. Ciudad de México, México, 29 de junio de 1962.

photo-icon_saturated Ver esta foto y más imágenes de la carpeta aquí.

 

La cálida bienvenida es especialmente evidente en las imágenes de la caravana de los vehículos que viajaban desde el aeropuerto hasta la residencia del Presidente de México (Los Pinos). Aproximadamente un millón y medio de personas se alinearon en las calles para ver el desfile de los automóviles, y una tormenta de confeti los saludaba mientras hacian su camino a través de la ciudad.

JFKWHP-ST-C1-27-62. President John F. Kennedy stands in a convertible during the motorcade to Los Pinos, the official residence of the President of Mexico, following his and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy's arrival in Mexico. President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos (right), stands in the car with President Kennedy. The Catedral de México (Metropolitan Cathedral) and the Galería Palacio Nacional (National Palace) are visible in the background. Confetti falls on the motorcade; spectators line the street. Mexico City, Mexico, 29 June 1962.

JFKWHP-ST-C1-27-62. El presidente John F. Kennedy se encuentra en un convertible durante el desfile de los automóviles a Los Pinos, la residencia oficial del Presidente de México, después de su llegada junto a la primera dama Jacqueline Kennedy en México. El presidente de México, Adolfo López Mateos (derecha), se encuentra en el coche con el presidente Kennedy. La Catedral de México y la Galería Palacio Nacional son visibles en el fondo. El Confeti cae en la caravana; los espectadores bordean la calle. Ciudad de México, México, 29 de junio de 1962.

photo-icon_saturated Ver esta foto y más imágenes de la carpeta aquí.

 

Al igual que con muchos de los viajes de los Kennedy, la señora Kennedy se destacó como una estrella. Ella recorrió varios lugares de interés y centros importantes de la Ciudad de México en la década de 1960, entrañandose a sí misma para el pueblo de México.

JFKWHP-KN-C22562. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy stands in front of the Piedra del Sol (Aztec calendar, Sun Stone) during a visit to the Museo Nacional de Antropología (National Museum of Anthropology) of the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (National Institute of Anthropology and History) in Mexico City, Mexico. Left to right: Eva López Mateos; First Lady of Mexico, Eva Sámano de López Mateos; Subdirector of the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Dr. Ignacio Bernal; Mrs. Kennedy; Director of the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Dr. Eusebio Dávalos Hurtado. 29 June 1962.

La Primera Dama Jacqueline Kennedy se encuentra frente a la Piedra del Sol (calendario azteca) durante una visita al Museo Nacional de Antropología del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia en la Ciudad de México, México. De izquierda a derecha: Eva López Mateos; la primera dama de México, Eva Sámano de López Mateos; el subdirector del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, el Dr. Ignacio Bernal; la señora Kennedy; y el director del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, el Dr. Eusebio Dávalos Hurtado. 29 de junio de 1962.

photo-icon_saturated Ver esta foto y más imágenes de la carpeta aquí.

 

 

JFKWHP-ST-C1-21-62. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy visits with children at the Instituto Nacional de Protección a la Infancia (National Institute for the Protection of Children) in Mexico City, Mexico, 30 June 1962.

JFKWHP-ST-C1-21-62. La primera dama Jacqueline Kennedy visita a niños en el Instituto Nacional de Protección a la Infancia en la Ciudad de México, México, 30 de junio de 1962.

photo-icon_saturated Ver esta foto y más imágenes de la carpeta aquí.

 

La señora Kennedy incluso dio un discurso en español en un almuerzo que ella y el presidente Kennedy dieron en honor al presidente López Mateos y a la Primera Dama de México, Eva Sámano de López Mateos.

JFKWHP-KN-C22666-G. President John F. Kennedy stands with First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy as she delivers remarks in Spanish at a luncheon held in honor of President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos, and First Lady of Mexico, Eva Sámano de López Mateos. At table (L-R): President of the Permanent Commission of the Mexican Congress, Rómulo Sánchez Mireles; President López Mateos; Mrs. Kennedy; President Kennedy; Mrs. López Mateos (mostly hidden behind flowers); President of the Supreme Court of Mexico, Alfonso Guzmán Neyra. Also pictured is U.S. State Department interpreter, Donald Barnes (in back, behind Mrs. Kennedy). Hotel Maria Isabel, Mexico City, Mexico, 30 June 1962.

JFKWHP-KN-C22666-G. El presidente John F. Kennedy se encuentra con la primera dama Jacqueline Kennedy mientras ella daba un discurso en español en un almuerzo celebrado en honor al presidente de México, Adolfo López Mateos, y a la Primera Dama de México, Eva Sámano de López Mateos. En la mesa (L-R): el Presidente de la Comisión Permanente del Congreso de México, Rómulo Sánchez Mireles; El presidente López Mateos; La señora Kennedy; El presidente Kennedy; La señora López Mateos (en su mayoría oculta detrás de las flores); el Presidente de la Corte Suprema de México, Alfonso Guzmán Neyra. También en la foto está el intérprete del Departamento de Estado de los de Estados Unidos , Donald Barnes (en la parte trasera, detrás de la señora Kennedy). Hotel Maria Isabel, Ciudad de México, México, 30 de junio de 1962.

photo-icon_saturated Ver imagen aquí.

 

 

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JBKOPP-SF16-003-p0084—85. Las traducciones en inglés y en español de las declaraciones de la primera dama Jacqueline Kennedy.

folder-icon_saturated Ver la carpeta completa aquí.

 

 

 

 

A medida que estas fotografías y documentos sugieren, el viaje a México fue un gran éxito en el fortalecimiento de la relación entre México y Estados Unidos como “buenos vecinos.” A lo largo del viaje, los dos presidentes expresaron su deseo de una fuerte amistad entre las dos naciones. En un mensaje enviado al presidente López Mateos a su salida de México, el presidente Kennedy llegó a la conclusión, “Vine a conocer a un presidente y estadista, yo lo he dejado como un amigo. ¡Viva México!”

 

JFKPOF-122-006-p0175

JFKPOF-122-006-p0175. Borrador del mensaje que el presidente Kennedy le envió al presidente López Mateos al salir de México.

folder-icon_saturated Ver la carpeta completa aquí.

 

El presidente López Mateos le envió este mensaje al presidente Kennedy en respuesta:

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folder-icon_saturated Para una traducción en ingles, vaya a la carpeta aquí.

 

Hasta la fecha, más de la mitad de las fotografías de este viaje han sido catalogadas y publicadas en nuestros archivos digitales. Visita nuestro instrumento de investigación para explorar más fotografías de este viaje y permanezcan atentos ya que el proyecto se acerca más a la finalización!

 

 

 

Permanent link to this article: http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2014/08/venimos-como-buenos-vecinos-la-visita-presidencial-a-mexico-junio-29-julio-1-de-1962/

Jul
03

The Civil Rights Act of 1964

by Elyse Edwards, Graduate Student Intern (Simmons College GSLIS)

By 1963 most states in this country had integrated businesses, schools, and public spaces, but integration proved much more difficult in southern states where policies and attitudes were still highly discriminatory. On June 11, 1963, the day two African American students were admitted to the University of Alabama despite being physically blocked by Alabama Governor, George Wallace, President John F. Kennedy addressed the nation on civil rights. In his speech he implored all Americans to help promote the ideals of equality on which our nation was founded and announced his plans to submit to Congress civil rights legislation to institutionalize equality for all.

Listen to the June 11, 1963 address: http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/JFKWHA-194-001.aspx

In his address to Congress on February 28, 1963 President Kennedy asserted that we must fight for the liberty of all Americans, “…above all, because it is right.” On June 19, 1963 President Kennedy submitted to Congress the Civil Rights Act of 1963, intended to resolve weaknesses of previous civil rights legislation that lacked enforcement provisions. The bill would allow the Attorney General to file lawsuits against those who sought to deprive individuals of rights guaranteed by the United States Constitution or by law. The legislation also addressed inequalities and grievances on issues of voting rights, public accommodations, and desegregation of public schools; it established the Community Relations Service, authorized the continuation of the Civil Rights Commission, prohibited discrimination in federally-assisted programs, and established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pages one, ten, and eleven of President Kennedy’s message to Congress of February 28, 1963. View the rest of the address here: http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/JFKPOF-052-016.aspx

 

Unfortunately, President Kennedy was not able to pass the legislation during his time in office. However, President Lyndon B. Johnson continued the fight and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (H.R. 7152) was officially signed into law on July 2, 1964. The passage of this act was the culmination of years of hard work by President John F. Kennedy, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights Burke Marshall, and countless others. While this period in our nation’s history saw many acts of violence and oppression perpetrated against civil rights activists and civilians alike, the Civil Rights Movement ultimately saw success in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

 

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Published results of the vote on the Civil Rights Bill (H.R. 7152) as it was posed to the House of Representatives in February 1964.  By this time, support for the bill was overwhelmingly in favor across the nation. See how other states voted here: http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/BMPP-029-001.aspx

 

Assistant Attorney General Burke Marshall played an instrumental role in advancing the goals of the Civil Rights Movement within the federal government and beyond. Never one to shy away from fighting the hard fight, his work in negotiating with parties on both sides of the movement helped stabilize the country as it moved toward integration. Documents throughout the Burke Marshall Personal Papers illustrate in vivid detail the necessity for the passage of a civil rights bill.

 

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This letter to Assistant Attorney General of the Tax Division, Louis F. Oberdorfer, illustrates the business community’s concerns about facing desegregation.  In some cases, businesses were resistant to integration efforts due to the potential for violent protest, to which they were often subjected. View the rest of the folder here: http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/BMPP-030-002.aspx

 

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 series within the Burke Marshall Personal Papers documents major components of the bill and summarizes the necessity for each of its titles, as well as its provisions and precedence. In addition, the series addresses criticisms and arguments from those opposed to the bill. These documents showcase the evolution of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 during the months of debate in the House of Representatives and the Senate. Highlights of the bill are as follows:

Title I: A mandate for the equal application of voter registration requirements. Literacy tests and oral or written interpretations of state and federal constitutions were consistently used to prevent eligible African Americans from voting. While these literacy tests were not completely eliminated with the 1964 Act, the bill mandated that they be consistently applied from thereon in. Under Title VIII, the Civil Rights Commission was charged with determining whether patterns or practices of discrimination existed in voting and voter registration.

Title II: Outlawed discrimination based on race, color, or religion in public accommodations such as movie theaters, restaurants, and motels involved in interstate commerce. Private businesses, such as social clubs, were excluded from this provision.

Title III: The most controversial section of the bill, it prohibits state and local governments from discriminating in public facilities. Furthermore, it allows for the Attorney General to file suit in a federal court on behalf of those whose access to public facilities was denied or restricted on the basis of their race, color, or religion. This provision was viewed by many on the state and local level as a blatant overreach of the federal government. It was stricken from the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960, but its inclusion in 1964 protected the rights of protestors against suppression of their First Amendment rights.

Title IV: Called for the desegregation of all public schools and the ability of the Attorney General to file lawsuits to enforce integration efforts.

Title V: Continued the Civil Rights Commission established in the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the responsibilities of which included investigating, reporting on, and making recommendations on civil rights issues affecting the nation.

Title VI: Prevents discrimination by government agencies receiving federal funding to the extent that funding could be terminated if compliance were not met.

Title VII: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission established to enforce the provision prohibiting discrimination by employers on the basis of race, color, religion, and sex. Those aligned with the Communist Party were not covered under this provision.

Title VIII: Under the Civil Rights Commission, voting and voter registration statistics would be compiled in designated areas in order to ensure that discriminatory practices, such as arbitrary application of voter registration tests, did not continue.

Title IX: Ensures a fair trial for all by making it easier to move civil rights cases from state to federal courts, when evidence of judge or jury prejudice exists. This provision was essential in guaranteeing that civil rights activists especially were not discriminated against during trial.

Title X: Established the Community Relations Service to mediate racial issues at the state and local level.

Title XI: For those accused of aforementioned civil rights abuses, Title XI grants them the right to a jury trial and for penalties not to exceed $1,000 or six months in jail.

The passage of this historic bill, initiated by President John F. Kennedy and fought for by so many others, laid the groundwork for subsequent civil rights legislation, setting precedence for anti-discrimination laws based on sex, age, and disability. As President Lyndon B. Johnson stated after signing into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964, “…those who began America knew that freedom would be secure only if each generation fought to renew and enlarge its meaning.” As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of this landmark bill, let us remember all those who fought against oppression and injustice to secure the rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness for all Americans.

 

 

Permanent link to this article: http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2014/07/the-civil-rights-act-of-1964/

Jul
01

The Sven Walnum Photograph Collection

by J.T. Buzanga (Former Graduate Student Intern, Northeastern University)

Sven Walnum was born in Oslo, Norway and immigrated to the United States in September 1947. Walnum’s life in Norway was difficult; having survived debilitating childhood illness, a chaotic family life, and World War II, Walnum went on to study cinematography at the University of Southern California. In 1960 he and fellow filmmaker Wayne Mitchell documented and photographed a short though important segment of Senator John F. Kennedy’s presidential campaign. Walnum’s interest in politics and in the Kennedys did not end with John F. Kennedy. He also photographed JFK’s two brothers, Robert F. Kennedy and Edward M. Kennedy, during their political campaigns. Although Walnum may be best known as the camera operator for films such as “The Sugarland Express” and “Deliverance,” his beautiful and distinctive photographs of the Kennedy brothers on the campaign trail deserve special attention.

Walnum followed John F. Kennedy’s presidential campaign from September 15 to October 17, 1960. During that time he photographed JFK’s public speeches and the crowds that came to hear them. He successfully captured JFK’s charismatic nature, and perhaps more notably, the energy and mood of his audiences. During the fall of 1960 JFK campaigned in many swing states and Walnum ably depicted the mixed attitudes toward JFK. For example, in Indiana—a state that went to Richard Nixon in the 1960 election—support for Nixon was captured thoughtfully and effectively. In other places, the show of support for JFK was unmistakable.

 

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SWPC-JFK-088-034. A Crowd Watches a Speech by Senator John F. Kennedy in Indiana, 5 October 1960. A young man shows support for Richard Nixon by wearing a campaign button on his belt.

 

 

 

 

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SWPC-JFK-C003-006. Senator John F. Kennedy Overlooks an Ohio Crowd, 17 October 1960.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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SWPC-JFK-C003-007. Supporters of Senator John F. Kennedy Applaud his Arrival, 17 October 1960.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum holds a limited number of audiovisual materials on Robert F. Kennedy, making the  Walnum additions quite valuable. As Robert F. Kennedy campaigned for the presidential nomination in Los Angeles, Walnum followed with his camera in tow. His photographs—which include RFK on the campaign trail, Ethel Kennedy and some of their children, and photos from the Ambassador Hotel shortly before RFK’s assassination—add rich and poignant variety to the existing holdings. Through his photos Walnum captured RFK’s fiery personality and the free-spirited, passionate crowds that attended his rallies.

 

 

 

 

 

SWPC-RFK-C011-003. Senator Robert F. Kennedy Delivers a Speech at the TRW Plant in Redondo Beach, CA, 16 May 1968.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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SWPC-RFK-C015-012. Ethel, David, and Mary Kerry Kennedy at Bolsa Grande High School, Garden Grove, CA, 2 June 1968.

 

 

 

 

 

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SWPC-RFK-C018-005. Senator Robert F. Kennedy and Ethel Kennedy Answer Questions at the Ambassador Hotel, Los Angeles, CA, 4 June 1968.

 

 

 

 

 

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SWPC-RFK-C021-005. Roadside Supporters of Senator Robert F. Kennedy from his Campaign in the Los Angeles Area, c. 2 June 1968

 

 

 

 

 

 

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SWPC-RFK-C001-006. Supporters of Senator Robert F. Kennedy Gather in Griffith Park, California, 24 March 1968.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fourteen years later, Sven Walnum worked on the campaign of yet another Kennedy. This time, he followed Edward M. “Ted” Kennedy on his 1982 senatorial campaign. As with the other Kennedy brothers, Walnum successfully captured Ted Kennedy’s personality. As importantly, Walnum documented the strong relationship between Ted Kennedy and the people of Massachusetts, a bond further reflected in his long tenure in the U.S. Senate (November 7, 1962 – August 25, 2009).

 

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SWPC-EMK-001-017A. Senator Edward M. Kennedy gives a Thumbs-up to the Students at the College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA, 28 October 1982.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SWPC-EMK-C002-030. Senator Edward M. Kennedy Delivers a Speech to the Greater Lowell Senior Forum at Northern Essex Community College, Haverhill, MA, 29 October 1982.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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SWPC-EMK-011-001A. Senator Edward M. Kennedy Campaigning in Fall River, MA, 27 October 1982.

 

 

 

 

 

These images represent a small fraction of the photographs available in the Sven Walnum Photograph Collection, which comprises approximately 1400 original negatives. This new collection offers researchers access to historically rich images that have rarely been seen by the public.

 

 

 

Permanent link to this article: http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2014/07/the-sven-walnum-photograph-collection/

Jun
04

Adventures in Crowdsourcing

by Lindsay Closterman and Nicola Mantzaris, Metadata Catalogers, White House Photographs

The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library is now on Flickr! We’re pleased to announce the launch of a new National Archives Flickr page, a crowdsourcing pilot project featuring images from the White House Photographs collection at the Kennedy Library. As metadata catalogers, we are eager to explore ways in which community participation can be a useful resource for professionally cataloged collections and archival institutions.

The White House Photographs collection is comprised of approximately 30,000 photos taken by three principal photographers: Robert Knudsen, Abbie Rowe, and Cecil Stoughton. The collection documents the President’s activities at the White House and his official trips; the President and his family at the White House, at other residences, on vacations, and at other non-official times; Administration officials and members of  Congress; White House staff and visitors to the White House; and White House rooms and grounds. To date, the Kennedy Library has digitized and cataloged approximately 11,000 images from this collection.

We have selected 36 images of unidentified administration staff members and associates for our first Flickr set, “Who am I? Can you identify these staff from the JFK Administration?” Despite thorough research, we have been unable to identify certain people pictured in these photographs and hope to tap into the knowledge of historians, former Kennedy administration officials, and anyone else who may be willing to contribute information. We have shared this Flickr set with the White House Historical Association and the Office of the Historian and hope to reach additional experts at other relevant organizations.

 

Here is a sampling of the images you can find on our Flickr page:

 

JFKWHP-AR6403-A. President John F. Kennedy with Photographers,  6 March 1961 [View photograph record here: https://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/14190071931/in/set-72157644729385113]

JFKWHP-AR6403-A. President John F. Kennedy with Photographers, 6 March 1961
[View photograph record here:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/14190071931/in/set-72157644729385113]

 

 

We were able to identify one of the four photographers pictured in this image of President John F. Kennedy attending the 20th Annual Westinghouse Science Talent Search. United Press International photographer James K. W. Atherton stands fourth from left. Do you know any of the other photographers?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

JFKWHP-KN-C21483. White House Chefs and Kitchen Staff, 3 May 1962 [View photograph record here: https://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/14190792372/in/set-72157644729385113]

JFKWHP-KN-C21483. White House Chefs and Kitchen Staff, 3 May 1962
[View photograph record here:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/14190792372/in/set-72157644729385113]

 

 

 

Can you identify the White House kitchen staff standing with White House Executive Chef René Verdon (third from left), Assistant Chef Julius Spessot (second from left), and Pastry Chef Ferdinand Louvat (second from right)?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

JFKWHP-AR6530-A. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy Attends White House Reception, 19 April 1961 [View photograph record here: https://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/14190807852/in/set-72157644729385113]

JFKWHP-AR6530-A. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy attends White House Reception, 19 April 1961
[View photograph record here:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/14190807852/in/set-72157644729385113]

 

 

 

The social aide pictured at left in this photograph with First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy appears in many of our photos, but we do not know his name. In this photo, he stands with the First Lady during a reception for wives of members of the American Society of Newspaper Editors.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

JFKWHP-KN-21436. President John F.  Kennedy with Unidentified White House Staff Member, 7 May 1962 [View photograph record here: https://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/14193299064/in/set-72157644729385113]

JFKWHP-KN-21436. President John F. Kennedy with Unidentified White House Staff Member, 7 May 1962
[View photograph record here:
https://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/14193299064/in/set-72157644729385113]

 

 

 

 

In this photograph, President John F. Kennedy stands with an unidentified man. Our sources indicate that the man might be a White House staff member, but we cannot confirm this, nor do we have a name for him.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Citizen archivists, unite!

To submit information regarding a photograph, simply sign in to your Flickr account (or create one) and post a comment or add a tag, making sure to include any relevant sources. Our catalogers will review the comments submitted by users and incorporate that information into our metadata when applicable. Creating a Flickr account is easy and free. We look forward to hearing from you!

See the entire Flickr set here: https://www.flickr.com/photos/usnationalarchives/sets/72157644729385113/

 

 

Permanent link to this article: http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2014/06/adventures-in-crowdsourcing/

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