archiveblog.jfklibrary.org http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org Archivally Speaking Tue, 05 Apr 2016 18:27:01 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=3.9.11 Collection Opening: Clarence J. Martin Personal Papers http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2016/04/collection-opening-clarence-j-martin-personal-papers/ http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2016/04/collection-opening-clarence-j-martin-personal-papers/#comments Tue, 05 Apr 2016 14:41:20 +0000 http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/?p=3364  

by Kelly Francis, Processing Archivist

We are pleased to announce that the Clarence J. Martin Personal Papers collection is now available for research. Clarence J. Martin (1930-2014) practiced law in Louisiana and served as a member of the House of Delegates of the Louisiana Bar Association. During the 1960 presidential campaign, he served as …

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by Kelly Francis, Processing Archivist

We are pleased to announce that the Clarence J. Martin Personal Papers collection is now available for research. Clarence J. Martin (1930-2014) practiced law in Louisiana and served as a member of the House of Delegates of the Louisiana Bar Association. During the 1960 presidential campaign, he served as co-chairman of the Kennedy for President Committee of Louisiana and worked to establish Kennedy for President clubs throughout the state.

 

Clarence J. MartinClarence J. Martin, Co-chairman, Kennedy for President Committee of Louisiana. View the entire folder here.

 

 

CJMPP-001-001-p0020Letter from Clarence Martin and Philip Des Marais, Co-Chairmen of the Kennedy for President Committee of Louisiana, to Senator John F. Kennedy, 14 July 1960. View the entire folder here.

 

CJMPP-001-001-p0047Letter from Robert F. Kennedy to Clarence Martin and Philip Des Marais, Co-Chairmen of the Kennedy for President Committee of Louisiana, 29 July 1960. View the entire folder here.

 

CJMPP-001-001-p0023Charter for Kennedy for President Club in Louisiana, 23 June 1960. View the entire folder here.

 

After the 1960 presidential campaign, Martin was appointed Director of Congressional Liaisons for the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). He later served as the executive director and general counsel of the Association for the Advancement of Psychology from 1974 until his retirement in 1987.

For more information on the Clarence J. Martin Personal Papers, please see the detailed collection guide on our website.

 

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Collection Opening: Edmund A. Gullion Personal Papers http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2016/03/collection-opening-edmund-a-gullion-personal-papers/ http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2016/03/collection-opening-edmund-a-gullion-personal-papers/#comments Wed, 23 Mar 2016 15:25:27 +0000 http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/?p=3336  

by Christina Fitzpatrick, Processing Archivist

We are pleased to announce the opening of the Edmund A. Gullion Personal Papers. Gullion had a lengthy and distinguished career in the Foreign Service and was U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of the Congo (Leopoldville) from 1961 to 1964.

Edmund Asbury Gullion (1913-1998) joined the State Department in …

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by Christina Fitzpatrick, Processing Archivist

We are pleased to announce the opening of the Edmund A. Gullion Personal Papers. Gullion had a lengthy and distinguished career in the Foreign Service and was U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of the Congo (Leopoldville) from 1961 to 1964.

JFKWHP-AR6747-A

AR6747-A. President John F. Kennedy Meets with United States Ambassador to the Republic of Congo (Leopoldville) Edmund A. Gullion, 18 August 1961. View more about this photo here.

Edmund Asbury Gullion (1913-1998) joined the State Department in 1937 and crisscrossed the globe on diplomatic assignments for the next three decades. He seemed to have a knack for pulling assignments in international hotspots. During World War II, Gullion witnessed German troops advancing into both Greece and Finland. He was stationed at the American Embassy in Saigon from 1949 to 1952, during the middle of the war in Indochina. And his term as ambassador was defined by the “Congo Crisis,” a five-year civil war surrounding the attempted secession of two of the country’s provinces. As the United States and the Soviet Union supported different sides in the dispute, the Congo was widely considered a frontier in the Cold War. Upon Gullion’s appointment to the Congo, many of the congratulatory messages he received also noted the difficulty of the assignment.

 

EAGPP-001-010-p0077

Letter to Gullion from Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, 24 July 1961. View the entire folder here.

 

EAGPP-001-010-p0011

Letter to Gullion from Herman Pollack, 12 August 1961. View the entire folder here.

 

Due to his extensive experience in the Foreign Service, Gullion frequently advocated for allowing the diplomatic corps to play a larger role in foreign policy decisions, as he stated in an oral history interview with the Association for Diplomatic Studies on June 2, 1988:

I believe that the President of the United States should know his Ambassadors, at least as well as he knows his generals and admirals, or his cabinet members. I believe that the Foreign Service has an active part to play in the formation of policy. It’s too easy and dismissive to say that it is the executor of policy and policy is made in Washington where all the strings come together. Of course, this is where the fountainhead of policy is but the fountain has deep sources. The Foreign Service officer who has lived with many peoples, encountered many situations, is in the best position to know what can and cannot work in the areas to which he is accredited. I think that he should have constant and frequent opportunities to contribute to policy, to comment on policy.”

 

After leaving the Foreign Service at the end of his ambassadorship, Gullion was named Dean of the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University, where he coined the term “public diplomacy” and sometimes clashed with student activists over the Vietnam War.

For more information on the Edmund A. Gullion Personal Papers, please see the detailed collection guide on our website.

 

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“The Business of Every Citizen”: President John F. Kennedy Stumps for Democratic Candidates in 1962 http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2016/02/the-business-of-every-citizen-president-john-f-kennedy-stumps-for-democratic-candidates-in-1962/ http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2016/02/the-business-of-every-citizen-president-john-f-kennedy-stumps-for-democratic-candidates-in-1962/#comments Wed, 24 Feb 2016 16:28:21 +0000 http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/?p=3239  

by Lindsay Closterman, White House Photographs Metadata Cataloger

In the last few months leading up to the midterm elections in 1962, President John F. Kennedy made several campaign trips in support of Democratic congressional and gubernatorial candidates around the eastern and midwestern United States. We are pleased to announce that all images in the …

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by Lindsay Closterman, White House Photographs Metadata Cataloger

In the last few months leading up to the midterm elections in 1962, President John F. Kennedy made several campaign trips in support of Democratic congressional and gubernatorial candidates around the eastern and midwestern United States. We are pleased to announce that all images in the White House Photographs collection documenting these campaign stops are now digitized in full. The photos join already-digitized textual records and sound recordings in forming the official record of President Kennedy’s campaign trips.

 

ST-413-3-62

JFKWHP-ST-413-3-62. President John F. Kennedy Greets Supporters in Wheeling, West Virginia, 27 September 1962.

ST-B452-22-62

JFKWHP-ST-B452-22-62. President John F. Kennedy Speaks in St. Paul, Minnesota, 6 October 1962.

 

Referring often to the Democratic Party as “the oldest political party in the world,” President Kennedy spoke during these trips of the party’s duty in working toward progressive aims on issues that affected many Americans, namely, securing health care for the aged, ensuring equal opportunity in housing, raising the minimum wage, providing access to higher education, lowering unemployment, and supporting the welfare of the American farmer.

 

ST-464-22-62

JFKWHP-ST-464-22-62. President John F. Kennedy Speaks in Monessen, Pennsylvania, 13 October 1962.

ST-464-30-62

JFKWHP-ST-464-30-62. President John F. Kennedy Speaks in Washington, Pennsylvania, 13 October 1962.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

To a crowd in Monessen, Pennsylvania, President Kennedy addressed critics who may have thought these trips were not the best use of the president’s time. He reasoned,

It is the business of every citizen of the United States to make a judgment about what kind of a House of Representatives we are going to have and what kind of a Senate we are going to have, and what kind of a Governor we are going to have in … all … States of the Union.”  [Read full remarks or listen to sound recording.]

 

ST-464-38-62

JFKWHP-ST-464-38-62. President John F. Kennedy Speaks in Buffalo, New York, 14 October 1962.

ST-464-17-62

JFKWHP-ST-464-17-62. President John F. Kennedy in Aliquippa, Pennsylvania, 12 October 1962.

 

In Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, President Kennedy stated that he did

…not believe that in this most critical and dangerous period in the life of our country that Presidents, or anyone else, should confine themselves to ceremonial occasions, ornamenting an office at a time when this country and the world needs all of the energy and the action and the commitment to progress that it can possibly have.”  [Read full remarks or listen to sound recording.]

 

At a rally in Flint, Michigan, the president said that even though he was not running for office at the time, he was campaigning “because I believe the election of Congressmen and Senators who support progressive, forward-looking legislation is vitally important” [read full remarks or listen to sound recording].

 

ST-464-32-62

JFKWHP-ST-464-32-62. Woman Wearing Sash of Campaign Buttons Listens to President John F. Kennedy Speak in Indianapolis, Indiana, 13 October 1962.

ST-464-39-62

JFKWHP-ST-464-39-62. Motorcycle Escort Rides with President John F. Kennedy’s Motorcade in Buffalo, New York, 14 October 1962.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ST-B452-27-62

JFKWHP-ST-B452-27-62. President John F. Kennedy Greets Young Women in Cincinnati, Ohio, 5 October 1962.

 

While it was business on behalf of the Democratic Party that brought President Kennedy to over two dozen cities during the campaign, he was still the president, after all. These congressional campaign photos show not only speeches delivered by a president in support of individual candidates, but also interactions of a president with his fellow citizens. Members of the public came out in droves to see President Kennedy and he was eager to meet them as well, often stopping his motorcade mid-route to greet supporters.

 

ST-B464-8-62

JFKWHP-ST-B464-8-62. Crowds Greet President John F. Kennedy in Chicago, Illinois, 19 October 1962.

 

From the bride in Minnesota who encountered President Kennedy along his motorcade route through Minneapolis (on her wedding day, no less), to the high school senior class president in Lakewood, Ohio, who presented the president with a football signed by the school’s football team, to the New Jersey congressman’s son who had written a letter to the President (and to Premier Khrushchev!) just a few months earlier, average citizens were eager to see their commander-in-chief in person.

 

ST-B452-28-62

JFKWHP-ST-B452-28-62. President John F. Kennedy Greets Bride in Minneapolis, Minnesota, 6 October 1962.

 

ST-464-9A-62

JFKWHP-ST-464-9A-62. President John F. Kennedy Receives Football in Lakewood, Ohio, 19 October 1962.

 

ST-464-1-62

JFKWHP-ST-464-1-62. President John F. Kennedy Shakes Hands with Peter W. Rodino, III, Son of Representative Peter W. Rodino, Jr., in Newark, New Jersey, 12 October 1962.

 

In Chicago, however, in the midst of what would be President Kennedy’s final congressional campaign trip, history intervened abruptly and called him back to the White House; his last few campaign stops coincided with the early days of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Though the president had already been traveling with a cold for some time, he cut his trip short under the pretense of not feeling well enough to continue. The last page for October 20, 1962 in his daily appointment book hinted at the real reason for his sudden return to Washington.

 

Appt book - 20 Oct 62

Excerpt from President John F. Kennedy’s daily appointment book, 20 October 1962.

 

Browse all photos from President Kennedy’s congressional campaign trips:

 

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Collection Opening: Robert A. Wallace Personal Papers http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2016/02/collection-opening-robert-a-wallace-personal-papers/ http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2016/02/collection-opening-robert-a-wallace-personal-papers/#comments Sun, 07 Feb 2016 22:42:49 +0000 http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/?p=3213  

by Christina Lehman Fitzpatrick, Processing Archivist

We are pleased to announce the opening of the Robert A. Wallace Personal Papers. Wallace was an economic consultant to Senator John F. Kennedy’s presidential campaign, and subsequently served in the Treasury Department from 1961 to 1969.

Robert Ash “Bob” Wallace, Jr. was born on May 26, 1921, …

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by Christina Lehman Fitzpatrick, Processing Archivist

We are pleased to announce the opening of the Robert A. Wallace Personal Papers. Wallace was an economic consultant to Senator John F. Kennedy’s presidential campaign, and subsequently served in the Treasury Department from 1961 to 1969.

RAWallace

RAWPP-PH-001. Photograph of Robert A. Wallace, undated.

Robert Ash “Bob” Wallace, Jr. was born on May 26, 1921, in Cordell, Oklahoma. He received a B.A. in political science at the University of Washington, and a Ph.D. in public administration from the University of Chicago. Wallace became Legislative Assistant to Senator Paul H. Douglas of Illinois and then worked as Staff Director of the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking and Urban Affairs. In 1959, he joined John F. Kennedy’s presidential campaign as an economic consultant. After the inauguration, he was appointed to the Treasury Department as Special Assistant to the Secretary, then Assistant to the Secretary (1961-1963), and finally Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Economic Affairs (1963-1969). In these roles, he coordinated the Treasury Department’s economic forecasts and recommendations to the President, supervised the U.S. Mint and the Secret Service, and served as Equal Employment Opportunity Coordinator for the agency. Wallace was also a member of the U.S. delegations to the Cotton Textiles Committee conference in Geneva, Switzerland and the International Wool Study Group in London, England, both in 1962.

Wallace resigned from his Senate position in April 1959 to join John F. Kennedy’s campaign staff, making him an important early supporter of Kennedy’s presidential bid. Wallace worked closely with Ted Sorensen, Edward M. Kennedy, Sargent Shriver, and Stephen E. Smith, among others, to build national support for the Kennedy campaign. Although initially hired as an economic adviser, Wallace was instrumental in developing the campaign’s grassroots strategy and was soon picked to manage the Kennedy for President Clubs that were springing up across the country. He made frequent trips to many western states to assess local Kennedy organizations and also played a role in West Virginia. After each trip, Wallace wrote a detailed memorandum for Senator Kennedy that assessed the political climate in each state and listed key supporters and delegates.

 

RAWPP-014-004-p0031RAWPP-014-004-p0060

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Left) Kennedy for President Club information brochure (page 1), 29 March 1960. View the entire folder here. (Right) Memorandum from Wallace to the state chairmen of the Kennedy for President Clubs, 27 May 1960. View the entire folder here.

 

  RAWPP-015-012-p0039Itinerary for Wallace’s campaign trip to Utah with Ted Sorensen, June 1959. View the entire folder here.

 

RAWPP-015-012-p0027Wallace’s notes for a campaign trip to West Virginia, 29 April – 2 May 1960, written on the back of a West Virginians for Kennedy sign-up sheet. View the entire folder here.

 

RAWPP-015-013-p0021Itinerary for Wallace’s campaign trip to South Dakota and North Dakota with Sargent Shriver, June 1960. View the entire folder here.

 

After Kennedy assumed the presidency, Robert A. Wallace was appointed to the Treasury Department under C. Douglas Dillon. Early in 1961, Wallace and other Treasury staffers began to meet with representatives from the Council of Economic Advisers and the Bureau of the Budget to discuss economic data. This group became known as the “Troika.” Each month they prepared a report of economic projections and fiscal estimates that were used to make policy recommendations to President Kennedy. In one memorandum, Wallace described how the three agencies agreed to cooperate in this endeavor:

After some discussion, it was agreed that the three functions were too interrelated to be divided – that each of the three agencies had a definite stake in the estimates of the others. Therefore, the group decided that that estimates of expenditures, revenues, and economic projections should be done jointly; and if there were differences of opinion, these would be made clear to the President. This meant that in general all three groups had to move together as a team, thus, the facetious self-reference to the group as the “Troika,” the term used for a Russian three-horse team.”

 

RAWPP-002-001-p0050Official procedures for the preparation of Troika economic and fiscal estimates, 31 May 1961. View the entire folder here.

 

RAWPP-001-013-p0004

Draft memorandum by Wallace regarding the Troika’s analysis of employment data. View the entire folder here.

 

After leaving the Treasury Department in 1969, Wallace became an executive at Exchange National Bank in Chicago and was later named Chairman of the Board of National Bancorp of Arizona. He died on June 8, 2001, in Tucson. A detailed guide to his papers is available on our website.

 

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Collection Opening: Lincoln Gordon Personal Papers http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2016/01/collection-opening-lincoln-gordon-personal-papers/ http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2016/01/collection-opening-lincoln-gordon-personal-papers/#comments Wed, 13 Jan 2016 01:02:18 +0000 http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/?p=3180  

by Jennifer Marciello and Christina Fitzpatrick, Processing Archivists

We are pleased to announce the opening of the Lincoln Gordon Personal Papers. Gordon served as U.S. Ambassador to Brazil (September 1961 – March 1966) in both the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. He was known as an expert on Latin American culture, economy, and politics.

 

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by Jennifer Marciello and Christina Fitzpatrick, Processing Archivists

We are pleased to announce the opening of the Lincoln Gordon Personal Papers. Gordon served as U.S. Ambassador to Brazil (September 1961 – March 1966) in both the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. He was known as an expert on Latin American culture, economy, and politics.

 

ST-45-1-62
JFKWHP-ST-45-1-62. President Kennedy and Ambassador Gordon talk in the Oval Office, 6 February 1962. View more about this picture here.

 

The collection contains a wide range of materials relating to Gordon’s professional career in government service, as well as his positions in academia and in non-profit research organizations. The papers also document Gordon’s life-long interest in the areas of business, economics, government, and Latin American politics (with a focus on Brazil) as well as his involvement in a variety of non-profit organizations and associations. Spanning the years 1931 to 2007, the collection comprises primarily chronological files, correspondence, subject files, speech files, photographs, office files, and appointment calendars.

Lincoln Gordon was born in New York City on September 10, 1913 and attended Harvard University, where he received a bachelor’s degree in 1933. Following his graduation, Gordon studied at Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar and obtained his Ph.D. in 1936; he then returned to Harvard as an instructor in government. During World War II and its aftermath, Gordon worked for a number of government agencies in Washington, D.C. and was stationed in Paris and London for several years. He was instrumental in the creation of the Marshall Plan to provide post-war economic aid to Europe. In between these government posts (during the 1950s) Gordon continued to teach at Harvard as a professor of international economic relations.

After the 1960 election, Gordon was appointed to President Kennedy’s Task Force on Latin America. In August 1961 he served as a delegate to the Inter-American Conference at Punta del Este, Uruguay, where the Alliance for Progress program was established. In September Gordon was named the United States Ambassador to Brazil. He remained in this position until March 1966, when he was appointed Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs.

 

LGPP-V001-008-p0001
LGPP-124-021. Letter from President Kennedy thanking Gordon for his work on the Latin America Task Force, 28 February 1961.

 

 

LGPP-V001-009-p0001

LGPP-142-008. Letter from Robert F. Kennedy congratulating Gordon on his new job at the State Department, 8 February 1966.

 

 

LGPP-V001-011-p0001
LGPP-142-013. Published Alliance for Progress declaration inscribed by President Johnson: “To Linc Gordon, with deep appreciation for your help in making the summit a success.”

 

 

LGPP-V001-021-p0001LGPP-219-013. Invitation from President Clinton to a symposium on the legacy of the Marshall Plan, 13 November 1995.

 

After leaving the State Department in June 1967, Gordon became the president of Johns Hopkins University. Student unrest and budgetary issues led to his resignation in March 1971. He returned to his scholarly research interests for the remainder of his career and worked at several non-profit think tanks. While at the Brookings Institution, he wrote the books Eroding Empire: Western Relations with Eastern Europe (1987) and Brazil’s Second Chance (2001). Gordon also worked at the CIA on the Senior Review Panel in the early 1980s. He passed away at the age of 96 on December 19, 2009.

A detailed guide to the Lincoln Gordon Personal Papers is available on our website.

 

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Mapping John F. Kennedy’s 1960 Presidential Campaign with Historypin http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2015/12/mapping-john-f-kennedys-1960-presidential-campaign-with-historypin/ http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2015/12/mapping-john-f-kennedys-1960-presidential-campaign-with-historypin/#comments Tue, 22 Dec 2015 23:12:52 +0000 http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/?p=3159  

by Nicola Mantzaris, White House Photographs Metadata Cataloger

As the 2016 election season gains momentum and we commemorate the fifty-sixth anniversary of the announcement of John F. Kennedy’s candidacy for President of the United States, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Historypin invite you to answer the question: “Did John F. Kennedy visit …

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by Nicola Mantzaris, White House Photographs Metadata Cataloger

As the 2016 election season gains momentum and we commemorate the fifty-sixth anniversary of the announcement of John F. Kennedy’s candidacy for President of the United States, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Historypin invite you to answer the question: “Did John F. Kennedy visit your town during his 1960 presidential campaign?”

We are pleased to announce that the Kennedy Library has teamed up with Historypin to create a map-based interface called “Mapping JFK’s 1960 Campaign,” giving users a new way to engage with archival materials from Senator John F. Kennedy’s 1960 presidential campaign.

 

MainPageHistorypin Collection: Mapping JFK’s 1960 Campaign

 

“Mapping JFK’s 1960 Campaign” is an interactive project designed to encourage visitors not only to follow John F. Kennedy on the campaign trail, but also to make their own connections to the 1960 election year by contributing or “pinning” memories to the Historypin map. It’s free and easy to join the conversation. Simply create a Historypin account and start sharing photographs, videos, and other materials directly from your computer; or, add a link to an image on the Web. Each pin requires minimal information: title, date, and location (e.g., town, region, or street address). Add a personal story or some keyword tags to describe what your pin is about; but always remember to consider copyright and ownership before pinning something to the “Mapping JFK’s 1960 Campaign” collection.

Historypin geocodes digitized content by converting location data into geographic coordinates, which are then positioned onto Google Maps. With Google’s Street View technology, Historypin almost magically brings the past to the present in animated form. If you have an exact address for an outdoor photograph, you can pin it with the Street View overlay and watch the image dissolve from past to present, like this photograph of supporters outside the U.S. Post Office in Madison, Illinois:

 

HistorypinAnimatedGIF

 

For more information, and to watch a how-to video on pinning items to the collection, visit the “About the Collection” page.

The Kennedy Library also encourages you to explore what made John F. Kennedy’s 1960 campaign the first modern American political campaign. Connect with the local history of Senator Kennedy’s campaign by browsing the Historypin map. Witness the enthusiasm of supporters in Columbus, Ohio. Read a letter from an administrator at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor) who was inspired by Senator John F. Kennedy’s improvised speech proposing the idea of a Peace Corps. Listen to Former Legislative Assistant Myer Feldman discuss the 1960 Wisconsin and West Virginia primaries in an oral history recorded in Washington, D.C. Or, see a schedule of events from the Senator’s visit to Los Angeles, days before he won the Democratic nomination and delivered one of his most famous speeches, asking Americans to meet the challenges of a New Frontier with invention, innovation, and imagination.

 

SWPC-JFK-C003-007SWPC-JFK-C003-007. Supporters of Senator John F. Kennedy Applaud his Arrival in Columbus, Ohio, 17 October 1960

 

 

UMichLetterLetter to Senator John F. Kennedy from W. Arthur Milne, Jr. regarding “Steps of the Union” Address at the Univ. of Michigan

 

FeldmanOHMyer Feldman Oral History Interview, 3/13/1966

 

ScheduleLosAngelesSchedule: Los Angeles, California, 10 July 1960

 

Like Historypin, many organizations within the archives and library communities are using geocoding tools to provide innovative ways in which their users may visualize and contextualize complex digital collections. “Mapping JFK’s 1960 campaign” comprises only a small subset of digitized content from the Library’s textual, audiovisual, and oral history holdings. By sharing this content with Historypin, the Kennedy Library hopes to reach new audiences and to deliver to its users a different type of experience.

With your help, we can build a national picture of John F. Kennedy’s 1960 presidential campaign and produce a new research tool for evaluating the timeline and geography of this historic campaign. We hope that you will contribute to the history of your town and share your stories with us!

 

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#ChristmasMiracle http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2015/12/christmasmiracle/ http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2015/12/christmasmiracle/#comments Mon, 21 Dec 2015 23:34:29 +0000 http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/?p=3109  

by Laurie Austin, Audiovisual Reference Archivist and Stacey Chandler, Textual Reference Archivist

Reference Archivists love sharing the treasures in their collections, so when the National Archives’ Office of Presidential Libraries announced a Twitter chat about Presidential holiday traditions, textual archivist Stacey Chandler and audiovisual archivist Laurie Austin jumped at the chance to participate. The …

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by Laurie Austin, Audiovisual Reference Archivist and Stacey Chandler, Textual Reference Archivist

Reference Archivists love sharing the treasures in their collections, so when the National Archives’ Office of Presidential Libraries announced a Twitter chat about Presidential holiday traditions, textual archivist Stacey Chandler and audiovisual archivist Laurie Austin jumped at the chance to participate. The #POTUSchat on December 9 was a great opportunity for us to look beyond the few Christmas-themed documents and photographs that everyone knows, and find some hidden gems to share with the public!

 

 

 

 

 

One question we were lucky enough to get in advance: “How did the First Family do their Christmas shopping?” Until we started digging for an answer, we had no idea – but the first place to look was in the Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis Personal Papers. We hit the archival jackpot when we found this FAO Schwarz toy catalog for Christmas 1961, along with a handwritten note by Mrs. Kennedy about items (and even their page numbers in the catalog) she wanted to order for her children, Caroline and John F. Kennedy, Jr.

A look inside the catalog shows that a great deal of attention went into choosing gifts—and luckily for archivists and researchers, Mrs. Kennedy dog-eared several pages and circled specific toys. What a find! We couldn’t believe we could actually see the selection of specific Christmas gifts, let alone figure out how they were purchased.

 

 

                                                                                          JBKOPP-037-008-p0008

 

 

But the fun didn’t stop there. Once we knew what to look for, we searched our photo and film collections to see if we could find the gifts in use. That horse and hound set circled on page 89?

JBKOPP-SF037-008-FAO-p89

 JBKOPP-SF037-008-FAO-p89

 

 

We spotted those in Caroline’s White House bedroom.

Caroline Kennedy’s bedroom, 8 May 1962. KN-C21446 [crop]. Photograph by Robert Knudsen, White House Photographs

 

 

Caroline Kennedy’s bedroom, 8 May 1962. KN-C21450 [crop]. Photograph by Robert Knudsen, White House Photographs

 

 

That “Busy Box” on page 10? There it is in John, Jr.’s crib in the nursery!

JBKOPP-SF037-008-FAO-p10JBKOPP-SF037-008-FAO-p10

 

 

John F. Kennedy, Jr.’s bedroom, 8 May 1962. KN-C21451 [crop]. Photograph by Robert Knudsen, White House Photographs

 

 

Admittedly, the big rocking horse from page 13 was pretty easy to spot in Caroline’s room.

JBKOPP-SF037-008-FAO-p13

JBKOPP-SF037-008-p13

 

 

JFKWHP-KN-C21505_RockingHorse_circle

Caroline Kennedy’s bedroom, 9 May 1962. KN-C21505. Photograph by Robert Knudsen, White House Photographs

 

 

Of course, we did find a few favorites. Laurie’s is the trampoline from page 86, which Mrs. Kennedy noted the mothers of the childrens’ play group would get for the South Lawn.

JBKOPP-SF037-008_FAO_p86

 

 

Here we have a sweet photo of Caroline jumping on it, with a brave friend named Shawn Brittle underneath!

Caroline Kennedy jumps on a trampoline on the South Lawn of the White House as her friend, Shawn Brittle, lies underneath. 17 May 1962. ST-A19-41-62 [crop]. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House Photographs

 

 

And can you believe we actually have footage of an unidentified friend jumping on the trampoline from an April 4, 1963 children’s party on the South Lawn?

TrampolinePPP54PPP:54. Footage by Cecil Stoughton. President’s Personal Pictures.

 

 

Stacey’s favorite? The “peasant” costume that Mrs. Kennedy circled on page 76 – a pretty fancy “peasant,” if you ask us!

Figure 3 JBKOPP-SF037-008_FAO_p76

 

 

Check out the photo of Caroline wearing this gift while spending time with her mother and brother in the White House nursery.

Mrs. Kennedy with Caroline Kennedy and John F. Kennedy, Jr. in the nursery, 27 November 1962. ST-A28-13-62 [crop]. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House Photos

 

 

As reference archivists, our work is guided entirely by the questions we are asked, and we get to learn something new about our collections every day. We’re grateful for the best holiday gift any archivist could as for – a question that led to fun discoveries in our archives!

 

]]> http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2015/12/christmasmiracle/feed/ 2 JBKOPP-037-008-p0008 JBKOPP-SF037-008-FAO-p89 JFKWHP-KN-C21446_cropBlackHorse_Circle JFKWHP-KN-C21450_cropHound_Circle JBKOPP-SF037-008-FAO-p10 JFKWHP-KN-C21451_crop_BusyBox_circle JBKOPP-SF037-008-FAO-p13 JFKWHP-KN-C21505_RockingHorse_circle JBKOPP-SF37-08_FAO_p86 JFKWHP-ST-A19-41-62_CBKTrampolinecrop TrampolinePPP54 JBKOPP-SF037-008-p0076_Crop JFKWHP-ST-A28-13-62_CBKPeasantcrop
Visualizing Hemingway: A Man in Letters http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2015/11/visualizing-hemingway-a-man-in-letters/ http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2015/11/visualizing-hemingway-a-man-in-letters/#comments Tue, 03 Nov 2015 23:18:34 +0000 http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/?p=3095  

by Niall O’Leary, Digital Humanities Specialist (guest author)

Ernest Hemingway traveled a lot. Really, a lot. Born in Illinois, he first left the United States for Europe to become an ambulance driver in World War I. He returned to the U.S., then went to Canada, then France, and after that his travels really took …

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by Niall O’Leary, Digital Humanities Specialist (guest author)

EH-3541(crop)

EH03541P. Ernest Hemingway writing in camp while on safari in Kenya, 1953. (C) Earl Theisen Archives.

Ernest Hemingway traveled a lot. Really, a lot. Born in Illinois, he first left the United States for Europe to become an ambulance driver in World War I. He returned to the U.S., then went to Canada, then France, and after that his travels really took off. This is clear from any Hemingway biography you might pick up, but it is also clear from a single image; this one:

 

timemap4

 

The map shown above is created using information about the letters Hemingway sent throughout his life. The assumption is that if he sent a letter from a location then there is a good chance that he must have been there when the letter was sent. This map uses colors to indicate the time Hemingway was in a certain place; the closer to red along the spectrum, the older the letter, the closer to blue, the more recent.

This kind of visualization is a useful tool when conceptualizing large amounts of data (in this instance, nearly 2,500 letters). Data visualization transforms many thousands of complex items into simple graphs, charts, and maps that make it easy to appreciate certain aspects of the original objects. For instance, letters are often deeply personal, semantically rich records of feeling, ideas, and personality. Studying even one letter’s content can require specialist skills, while ambiguity, typos and basic individual style can complicate even the most detailed reading. Yet every letter has a set of attributes that once known makes it possible to compare one letter with another. These standard characteristics are a source of relatively unambiguous information and tell us about the letter itself rather than its content. As we have seen, just knowing where a letter came from provides a very important piece of information in itself. There are other characteristics that also illuminate correspondence and by extension the correspondents involved. For example, who sent a letter, who they sent it to, where they sent it and when, are details that allow correspondence to answer a whole host of questions about historical figures and their worlds.

 

A small sample of Hemingway’s network of correspondents

A small sample of Hemingway’s network of correspondents

 

In the case of the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library’s holdings, the Ernest Hemingway Personal Papers provide a wide range of opportunities for scholars studying the great writer. Scrapbooks, clippings, letters, notebooks, published and unpublished manuscripts all jostle for one’s attention among the treasures. Just how does one get a handle on so much data? How can one possibly navigate, let alone study, all this material? In the case of his correspondence alone, there are over 10,000 letters both from and to Hemingway and his family. Most of this material is held in its original paper format. Only the most tenacious researcher with a huge amount of time on their hands and working within the Library itself could possibly rein in even a portion of such holdings. Unless they use data visualization, that is. Luckily the Library has documented their extensive holdings in a hugely detailed finding aid available online as a Guide to the Ernest Hemingway Collection. While this document contains detail on thousands of objects, it usefully brings together the most salient metadata in one place. Extract this metadata digitally, apply current technology, and some aspects of the collection can be navigated, analyzed, and understood. To be sure, we cannot answer all questions about Hemingway, but with relative ease we can now provide answers to many queries that in the past might have been beyond our time and resources.

For instance, who did Hemingway write most of his letters to? (His last wife, Mary Welsh Hemingway, received nearly 11% of his letters.) Who wrote to him the most? (His first wife, Elizabeth Hadley Richardson, takes that honor.) Which other writers and artists was he in contact with? (A huge network included F. Scott Fitzgerald, Sherwood Anderson, and Marlene Dietrich among many, many others.) How did the nature of his correspondence change as his popularity grew? (His letter writing peaks around the time he won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.) Where was he in early March 1952? (Hemingway was at his home in Cuba while finishing his Pulitzer Prize-winning, The Old Man and the Sea.) To be sure, the where, when, and who questions are not always as interesting as the why, but knowing their answers often provides a clue when addressing motivation and cause. To the biographer or the Hemingway scholar, the who, when, and where questions are crucial.

 

The frequency of Hemingway’s letters over his life

The frequency of Hemingway’s letters over his life

 

It was with a view to exploring these questions and seeing how far the barest data might take us, that I developed the website ‘Visual Correspondence’. This site takes the five elements I have mentioned – sender, recipient, origin, destination, and date – and provides the user with a wide range of tools for querying that metadata. Maps, pie charts, bubble graphs, timelines and many more visualizations allow a user to conceptualize thousands of letters through a few clicks. As well as developing these tools, I have also sought out as many collections of letters as I could find and tried to index their metadata. That was how I came across the Library’s excellent finding aid. At the time of writing, I have indexed nearly 160,000 letters from thousands of writers, scientists, politicians, and artists, not to mention so-called ‘ordinary’ people, with correspondents such as Mark Twain, Charles Darwin, Benjamin Franklin, and James Joyce rubbing shoulders with immigrants, factory workers, and civil servants. My hope is that in bringing together so many disparate collections, overlaps and outliers might become apparent leading to new scholarly insights. At the most basic level the site provides a means of finding letters that even the most sophisticated Googling might not bring to light.

So what does ‘Visual Correspondence’ tell us about Ernest Hemingway. Certainly it confirms a lot of preconceptions. That he traveled extensively, had many friends and lovers, and became a cultural icon for the global literary community is clear through an analysis of his network of correspondents. That he was closely involved in his business affairs (he wrote extensively to his lawyer, Alfred Rice), that his various wives were in contact with one another, and that his interest in politics continued throughout his life (there is even some contact with John F. Kennedy) is also abundantly clear. However, the real insights are yet to be found and will require good old-fashioned research, albeit research with a new set of tools. What is certainly clear to me is that without the excellent finding aid compiled by the John F. Kennedy Library none of this would be possible. In his Nobel Prize-winning speech, Hemingway wrote, “A writer should write what he has to say and not speak it”. Thankfully for us, he was a true writer.

 

]]> http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2015/11/visualizing-hemingway-a-man-in-letters/feed/ 2 EH-3541(crop) timemap4 network A small sample of Hemingway’s network of correspondents frequency The frequency of Hemingway’s letters over his life
Digitization of Photographs from President John F. Kennedy’s Trip to Italy http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2015/10/digitization-of-photographs-from-president-john-f-kennedys-trip-to-italy/ http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2015/10/digitization-of-photographs-from-president-john-f-kennedys-trip-to-italy/#comments Fri, 30 Oct 2015 14:40:23 +0000 http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/?p=3074  

by Laura Kintz, Graduate Student Intern (UMass Boston)

We are pleased to announce that all White House Photographs from President John F. Kennedy’s trip to Italy in July of 1963 are now digitized in full. They are accessible online through the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum’s digital archives.

The 92 photographs, covering …

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by Laura Kintz, Graduate Student Intern (UMass Boston)

We are pleased to announce that all White House Photographs from President John F. Kennedy’s trip to Italy in July of 1963 are now digitized in full. They are accessible online through the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum’s digital archives.

KN-C29263

JFKWHP-KN-C29263. President John F. Kennedy’s Motorcade Through Rome, Italy.

The 92 photographs, covering July 1-2, 1963, document President Kennedy’s only official trip to Italy during his presidency, which came at the end of a 10-day trip to Europe that also included visits to Germany, Ireland, and England. During his time in Italy, the President visited various significant locations around Rome and Naples, delivering remarks, meeting with government and military officials, and greeting throngs of Italian well-wishers. During a time when Italy was experiencing political uncertainty, President Kennedy’s visit represented the United States’ commitment to maintaining a strong relationship with the country and its new president, Antonio Segni.

 

JFKWHP-KN-C29266

JFKWHP-KN-C29266. President John F. Kennedy Attends Wreath-laying Ceremony at Tomb of Unknown Soldier in Rome, Italy.

 

KN-C29250

JFKWHP-KN-C29250. President John F. Kennedy Speaks at City Hall in Rome, Italy.

 

KN-C29276

KN-C29276. President John F. Kennedy Arrives at NATO Headquarters in Naples, Italy.

 

In addition to his state-related activities during the trip, President Kennedy, the United States’ first Catholic president, also had the opportunity to meet with the recently-elected Pope Paul VI. White House Photographs from the visit are limited to the President’s arrival at the Vatican (see below), but a motion picture documenting his trip to Europe from the White House Films collection includes footage of his audience with the Pope and is available for viewing through the digital archives.

 

JFKWHP-KN-C29284

KN-C29284. President John F. Kennedy Visits the Vatican for Meeting with Pope Paul VI.

 

One part of the trip that is especially well-documented is President Kennedy’s motorcade through Naples. Among those 34 photographs are many that illustrate the intensity and excitement of the crowds who gathered to see the President. Some candid shots of President Kennedy’s aides and members of his White House Secret Service detail capture the fun of traveling down a Naples highway in a convertible.

 

ST-C230-46-63

ST-C230-46-63. President John F. Kennedy’s Motorcade Through Naples, Italy.

JFKWHP-ST-A7-4-63

ST-A7-4-63. Presidential Aides and White House Secret Service Agents in Naples, Italy.

JFKWHP-ST-C231-20-63

ST-C231-20-63. Spectators Watch President John F. Kennedy’s Motorcade Through Naples, Italy.

 

President Kennedy’s trip to Italy represents a significant diplomatic (and religious) venture of his presidency. Although the photographs from the trip were already available for viewing onsite at the Kennedy Library, now that they have been digitized and cataloged, they can be accessed by online users all over the world. Browsing terms, including some newly-created terms, have been associated with each photograph to aid in searching for specific people, places, and organizations. These images can now provide insight into President Kennedy’s travels, to a much wider audience.

 

Browse all photos from President Kennedy’s trip to Italy:

Italy, Rome: Arrival at Fiumicino Airport, and presentation of gift by President Antonio Segni at Quirinale Palace

Italy, Rome: President Kennedy at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier

Italy, Rome: Motorcade

Italy, Rome: President Kennedy at the Campidoglio (City Hall)

Italy, Rome: President Kennedy at dinner at Quirinale Palace

Vatican City: President Kennedy at the Vatican

Italy, Rome: President Kennedy at the Pontifical North American College with Jean Kennedy Smith and Archbishop of Boston Richard Cardinal Cushing

Italy, Naples: President Kennedy arrives at NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Headquarters

Italy, Naples: President Kennedy gives address at NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Headquarters

Italy, Naples: Motorcade

Italy, Naples: President Kennedy’s departure

]]> http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2015/10/digitization-of-photographs-from-president-john-f-kennedys-trip-to-italy/feed/ 0 KN-C29263 JFKWHP-KN-C29266 KN-C29250 KN-C29276 JFKWHP-KN-C29284 ST-C230-46-63 JFKWHP-ST-A7-4-63 JFKWHP-ST-C231-20-63
Digitization of Photographs from President John F. Kennedy’s Funeral http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2015/08/digitization-of-photographs-from-president-john-f-kennedys-funeral/ http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/2015/08/digitization-of-photographs-from-president-john-f-kennedys-funeral/#comments Wed, 12 Aug 2015 16:17:45 +0000 http://archiveblog.jfklibrary.org/?p=3061  

by Lindsay Closterman, White House Photographs Metadata Cataloger

We are pleased to announce that all White House Photographs from the state funeral of President John F. Kennedy are now digitized in full.

These photographs capture a time of great significance and grief in our nation’s history, and they (together with the photos from the …

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by Lindsay Closterman, White House Photographs Metadata Cataloger

We are pleased to announce that all White House Photographs from the state funeral of President John F. Kennedy are now digitized in full.

These photographs capture a time of great significance and grief in our nation’s history, and they (together with the photos from the President’s final trip to Dallas) are among some of the most requested images in the White House Photographs collection. While they were already available for research, the photos are now accessible online to researchers and users worldwide, along with all of the materials in the library’s digital archives.

 

JFKWHP-AR8255-1H_resized

JFKWHP-AR8255-1H. Jacqueline Kennedy Departs White House for Funeral Procession to Capitol Building.

JFKWHP-KN-C30750_resized

JFKWHP-KN-C30750. President John F. Kennedy’s Funeral Procession to St. Matthew’s Cathedral.

 

The 350 funeral photos span a period of three days, from November 23 to November 25, 1963. Events include: President Kennedy’s body returning to the White House, lying in repose in the East Room of the White House and lying in state at the U.S. Capitol; processions to the Capitol Building and St. Matthew’s Cathedral; the requiem mass at St. Matthew’s; the burial of President Kennedy at Arlington National Cemetery; a post-funeral reception at the White House; as well as photos of the newly-redecorated Oval Office with President Kennedy’s effects, the caparison of the riderless horse Black Jack, and a night view of the eternal flame near the late President’s gravesite.

 

JFKWHP-ST-C422-115-63_resized

JFKWHP-ST-C422-115-63. Requiem Mass at St. Matthew’s Cathedral.

JFKWHP-ST-C422-11-63_resized

JFKWHP-ST-C422-11-63. Burial of President John F. Kennedy at Arlington National Cemetery.

 

In addition to making the photos available to users all over the world, the process of scanning and cataloging the images makes them searchable in a way that was previously not possible. The metadata for these images enables online users to retrieve images of specific people, such as members of the Kennedy family, administration officials, military officials, heads of state, ambassadors, foreign dignitaries, and members of the clergy. These digital materials combine information found in the Kennedy Library’s collections, as well as in contemporary newspaper articles, books, correspondence from researchers, and firsthand accounts, and they serve to support the continued knowledge-building around this historic event.

 

JFKWHP-ST-C422-110-63_resized

JFKWHP-ST-C422-110-63. Flowers at Arlington National Cemetery.

JFKWHP-ST-C422-33-63_resized

JFKWHP-ST-C422-33-63. Post-Funeral Reception at the White House.

 

Browse all photos from President Kennedy’s funeral:

President Kennedy’s body returns to the White House

Lying in repose in the East Room of the White House

White House, redecorated Oval Office with President Kennedy’s effects

Departure from the White House and Procession to the United States Capitol

Lying in state at the United States Capitol, departure of Kennedy family

White House, State Rooms and floral arrangements

Procession to St. Matthew’s Cathedral

Requiem Mass at St. Matthew’s Cathedral and burial at Arlington National Cemetery

White House, post funeral Reception

Riderless horse Black Jack’s caparison (saddle, bridle, blanket, sword, boots, and spurs) delivered to White House

Eternal Flame (view from the Lincoln Memorial at night)

 

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